CCIE R&S Written Bootcamp

Course Information

Duration: 5 days

Version: CCIE Written BC 5.1

Price: $4,395.00


Exam: 400-101

Learning Credits:


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CCIE 400-101 Routing and Switching Written Bootcamp – The CCIE Routing and Switching Written (CCIE Written) Bootcamp is a five-day course that prepares students for the CCIE R&S Written exam. The exam assesses technical knowledge on topics such as IP, IP routing, bridging and switch-related technologies and some equipment commands.


  • A valid CCNP certification is recommended.
  • 2 years of Cisco networking experience is recommended.


Target Audience:

Professionals preparing for the CCIE R&S Written exam.


Course Objectives:

Understand key concepts covered in the CCIE R&S Written exam.


Course Outline:

1.0 Network Principles
1.1 Network theory
  • 1.1.a Describe basic software architecture differences between IOS and IOS XE
  • 1.1.a (i) Control plane and Forwarding plane
  • 1.1.a (ii) Impact to troubleshooting and performances
  • 1.1.a (iii) Excluding specific platform's architecture
  • 1.1.b   Identify Cisco express forwarding concepts
  • 1.1.b (i) RIB, FIB, LFIB, Adjacency table
  • 1.1.b (ii) Load balancing Hash
  • 1.1.b (iii) Polarization concept and avoidance
  • 1.1.c   Explain general network challenges
  • 1.1.c (i) Unicast flooding
  • 1.1.c (ii) Out of order packets
  • 1.1.c (iii)   Asymmetric routing
  • 1.1.c (iv) Impact of micro burst
  • 1.1.d   Explain IP operations
  • 1.1.d (i) ICMP unreachable, redirect
  • 1.1.d (ii) IPv4 options, IPv6 extension headers
  • 1.1.d (iii) IPv4 and IPv6 fragmentation
  • 1.1.d (iv) TTL
  • 1.1.d (v) IP MTU
  • 1.1.e   Explain TCP operations
  • 1.1.e (i) IPv4 and IPv6 PMTU
  • 1.1.e (ii) MSS
  • 1.1.e (iii) Latency
  • 1.1.e (iv) Windowing
  • 1.1.e (v) Bandwidth delay product
  • 1.1.e (vi) Global synchronization  
  • 1.1.e (vii) Options
  • 1.1.f Explain UDP operations
  • 1.1.f (i) Starvation
  • 1.1.f (ii) Latency
  • 1.1.f (iii) RTP/RTCP concepts
1.2 Network implementation and operation
  • 1.2.a   Evaluate proposed changes to a network
  • 1.2.a (i) Changes to routing protocol parameters
  • 1.2.a (ii) Migrate parts of a network to IPv6
  • 1.2.a (iii) Routing protocol migration
  • 1.2.a (iv) Adding multicast support
  • 1.2.a (v) Migrate spanning tree protocol
  • 1.2.a (vi) Evaluate impact of new traffic on existing QoS design
1.3 Network troubleshooting
  • 1.3.a   Use IOS troubleshooting tools
  • 1.3.a (i) debug, conditional debug
  • 1.3.a (ii) ping, traceroute with extended options
  • 1.3.a (iii) Embedded packet capture
  • 1.3.a (iv) Performance monitor
  • 1.3.b   Apply troubleshooting methodologies
  • 1.3.b (i) Diagnose the root cause of networking issue (analyze symptoms, identify and describe root cause)
  • 1.3.b (ii) Design and implement valid solutions according to constraints
  • 1.3.b (iii) Verify and monitor resolution
  • 1.3.c   Interpret packet capture
  • 1.3.c (i) Using Wireshark trace analyzer
  • 1.3.c (ii) Using IOS embedded packet capture
2.0   Layer 2 Technologies
2.1 LAN switching technologies
  • 2.1.a   Implement and troubleshoot switch administration
    • 2.1.a (i) Managing MAC address table
    • 2.1.a (ii) errdisable recovery
    • 2.1.a (iii) L2 MTU
  • 2.1.b   Implement and troubleshoot layer 2 protocols
    • 2.1.b  (i) CDP, LLDP
    • 2.1.b  (ii) UDLD
  • 2.1.c   Implement and troubleshoot VLAN
    • 2.1.c (i) Access ports
    • 2.1.c (ii) VLAN database
    • 2.1.c (iii) Normal, extended VLAN, voice VLAN
  • 2.1.d   Implement and troubleshoot trunking
    • 2.1.d (i) VTPv1, VTPv2, VTPv3, VTP pruning
    • 2.1.d (ii) dot1Q
    • 2.1.d (iii) Native VLAN
    • 2.1.d (iv) Manual pruning
  • 2.1.e   Implement and troubleshoot EtherChannel
    • 2.1.e (i) LACP, PAgP, manual
    • 2.1.e (ii) Layer 2, layer 3
    • 2.1.e (iii) Load‐balancing
    • 2.1.e (iv) Etherchannel misconfiguration guard
  • 2.1.f   Implement and troubleshoot spanning‐tree
    • 2.1.f (i) PVST+/RPVST+/MST
    • 2.1.f (ii) Switch priority, port priority, path cost, STP timers
    • 2.1.f (iii) port fast, BPDUguard, BPDUfilter
    • 2.1.f (iv) loopguard, rootguard
  • 2.1.g   Implement and troubleshoot other LAN switching technologies
    • 2.1.g (i) SPAN, RSPAN, ERSPAN
  • 2.1.h   Describe chassis virtualization and aggregation technologies
    • 2.1.h (i) Multichassis
    • 2.1.h (ii) VSS concepts  
    • 2.1.h (iii) Alternative to STP
    • 2.1.h (iv) Stackwise
    • 2.1.h (v) Excluding specific platform implementation  
  • 2.1.i   Describe spanning‐tree concepts
    • 2.1.i (i) Compatibility between MST and RSTP
    • 2.1.i (ii) STP dispute, STP bridge assurance
2.2 Layer 2 multicast
  • 2.2.a   Implement and troubleshoot IGMP
    • 2.2.a (i) IGMPv1, IGMPv2, IGMPv3
    • 2.2.a (ii) IGMP snooping
    • 2.2.a (iii) IGMP querier
    • 2.2.a (iv) IGMP filter
    • 2.2.a (v) IGMP proxy
  • 2.2.b   Explain MLD
  • 2.2.c   Explain PIM snooping
2.3 Layer 2 WAN circuit technologies
  • 2.3.a   Implement and troubleshoot HDLC
  • 2.3.b   Implement and troubleshoot PPP
    • 2.3.b (i) Authentication (PAP, CHAP)
    • 2.3.b (ii) PPPoE  
    • 2.3.b (iii) MLPPP
  • 2.3.c   Describe WAN rate‐based ethernet circuits
    • 2.3.c (i) Metro and WAN Ethernet topologies
    • 2.3.c (ii) Use of rate‐limited WAN ethernet services
3.0 Layer 3 Technologies
3.1 Addressing technologies
  • 3.1.a   Identify, implement and troubleshoot  IPv4 addressing and subnetting
    • 3.1.a (i) Address types, VLSM
    • 3.1.a (ii) ARP
  • 3.1.b   Identify, implement and troubleshoot IPv6 addressing and subnetting
    • 3.1.b (i) Unicast, multicast
    • 3.1.b (ii) EUI‐64
    • 3.1.b (iii) ND, RS/RA
    • 3.1.b (iv) Autoconfig/SLAAC, temporary addresses (RFC4941)
    • 3.1.b (v) Global prefix configuration feature
    • 3.1.b (vi) DHCP protocol operations
    • 3.1.b (vii) SLAAC/DHCPv6 interaction
    • 3.1.b (viii) Stateful, stateless DHCPv6
    • 3.1.b (ix) DHCPv6 prefix delegation
3.2 Layer 3 multicast
  • 3.2.a   Troubleshoot reverse path forwarding
    • 3.2.a (i) RPF failure
    • 3.2.a (ii) RPF failure with tunnel interface  
  • 3.2.b   Implement and troubleshoot IPv4 protocol independent multicast
    • 3.2.b (i) PIM dense mode, sparse mode, sparse‐dense mode
    • 3.2.b (ii) Static RP, auto‐RP, BSR
    • 3.2.b (iii) BiDirectional PIM
    • 3.2.b (iv) Source‐specific multicast
    • 3.2.b (v) Group to RP mapping
    • 3.2.b (vi) Multicast boundary
  • 3.2.c   Implement and troubleshoot multicast source discovery protocol
    • 3.2.c (i) Intra‐domain MSDP (anycast RP)
    • 3.2.c (ii) SA filter
  • 3.2.d   Describe IPv6 multicast
    • 3.2.d (i) IPv6 multicast addresses
    • 3.2.d (ii) PIMv6
3.3 Fundamental routing concepts   
  • 3.3.a   Implement and troubleshoot static routing
  • 3.3.b   Implement and troubleshoot default routing
  • 3.3.c   Compare routing protocol types
    • 3.3.c (i) Distance vector
    • 3.3.c (ii) Link state
    • 3.3.c (iii) Path vector
  • 3.3.d   Implement, optimize and troubleshoot administrative distance
  • 3.3.e   Implement and troubleshoot passive interface
  • 3.3.f   Implement and troubleshoot VRF lite
  • 3.3.g   Implement, optimize and troubleshoot filtering with any routing protocol
  • 3.3.h   Implement, optimize and troubleshoot redistribution between any routing protocol
  • 3.3.i   Implement, optimize and troubleshoot manual and auto summarization with any routing protocol
  • 3.3.j   Implement, optimize and troubleshoot policy‐based routing
  • 3.3.k   Identify and troubleshoot sub‐optimal routing
  • 3.3.l   Implement and troubleshoot bidirectional forwarding detection
  • 3.3.m   Implement and troubleshoot loop prevention mechanisms
    • 3.3.m (i) Route tagging, filtering
    • 3.3.m (ii) Split horizon
    • 3.3.m (iii) Route poisoning  
  • 3.3.n   Implement and troubleshoot routing protocol authentication
    • 3.3.n (i) MD5
    • 3.3.n (ii) Key‐chain
    • 3.3.n (iii) EIGRP HMAC SHA2‐256bit
    • 3.3.n (iv) OSPFv2 SHA1‐196bit
    • 3.3.n (v) OSPFv3 IPsec authentication
3.4 RIP (v2 and v6)
  • 3.4.a   Implement and troubleshoot RIPv2
  • 3.4.b   Describe RIPv6 (RIPng)
3.5 EIGRP (for IPv4 and IPv6)
  • 3.5.a   Describe packet types
    • 3.5.a (i) Packet types (hello, query, update, and such)
    • 3.5.a (ii) Route types (internal, external)
  • 3.5.b   Implement and troubleshoot neighbor relationship
    • 3.5.b (i) Multicast, unicast EIGRP peering
    • 3.5.b (ii) OTP point‐to‐point peering
    • 3.5.b (iii) OTP route‐reflector peering
    • 3.5.b (iv) OTP multiple service providers scenario
  • 3.5.c   Implement and troubleshoot loop free path selection
    • 3.5.c (i) RD, FD, FC, successor, feasible successor
    • 3.5.c (ii) Classic metric
    • 3.5.c (iii) Wide metric
  • 3.5.d   Implement and troubleshoot operations
    • 3.5.d (i) General operations
    • 3.5.d (ii) Topology table, update, query, active, passive
    • 3.5.d (iii) Stuck in active
    • 3.5.d (iv) Graceful shutdown
  • 3.5.e   Implement and troubleshoot EIGRP stub
    • 3.5.e (i) Stub
    • 3.5.e (ii) Leak‐map
  • 3.5.f   Implement and troubleshoot load‐balancing
    • 3.5.f (i) equal‐cost
    • 3.5.f (ii) unequal‐cost
    • 3.5.f (iii) add‐path
  • 3.5.g   Implement EIGRP (multi‐address) named mode
    • 3.5.g (i) Types of families
    • 3.5.g (ii) IPv4 address‐family  
    • 3.5.g (iii) IPv6 address‐family  
  • 3.5.h   Implement, troubleshoot and optimize EIGRP convergence and scalability
    • 3.5.h (i) Describe fast convergence requirements
    • 3.5.h (ii) Control query boundaries
    • 3.5.h (iii) IP FRR/fast reroute (single hop)
    • 3.5.8 (iv) Summary leak‐map
    • 3.5.h (v) Summary metric
3.6 OSPF (v2 and v3)
  • 3.6.a   Describe packet types
    • 3.6.a (i) LSA yypes (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9)
    • 3.6.a (ii) Route types (N1, N2, E1, E2)
  • 3.6.b   Implement and troubleshoot neighbor relationship
  • 3.6.c   Implement and troubleshoot OSPFv3 address‐family support
    • 3.6.c (i) IPv4 address‐family  
    • 3.6.c (ii) IPv6 address‐family  
  • 3.6.d   Implement and troubleshoot network types, area types and router types
    • 3.6.d (i) Point‐to‐point, multipoint, broadcast, non‐broadcast
    • 3.6.d (ii) LSA types, area type: backbone, normal, transit, stub, NSSA, totally stub
    • 3.6.d (iii) Internal router, ABR, ASBR
    • 3.6.d (iv) Virtual link
  • 3.6.e   Implement and troubleshoot path preference
  • 3.6.f   Implement and troubleshoot operations
    • 3.6.f (i) General operations
    • 3.6.f (ii) Graceful shutdown
    • 3.6.f (iii) GTSM (Generic TTL Security Mechanism)
  • 3.6.g   Implement, troubleshoot and optimize OSPF convergence and scalability
    • 3.6.g (i) Metrics
    • 3.6.g (ii) LSA throttling, SPF tuning, fast hello
    • 3.6.g (iii) LSA propagation control (area types, ISPF)
    • 3.6.g (iv) IP FRR/fast reroute (single hop)
    • 3.6.g (v) LFA/loop‐free alternative (multi hop)
    • 3.6.g (vi) OSPFv3 prefix suppression
3.7   BGP
  • 3.7.a   Describe, implement and troubleshoot peer relationships
    • 3.7.a (i) Peer‐group, template
    • 3.7.a (ii) Active, passive
    • 3.7.a (iii) States, timers
    • 3.7.a (iv) Dynamic neighbors
  • 3.7.b   Implement and troubleshoot IBGP and EBGP
    • 3.7.b (i) EBGP, IBGP
    • 3.7.b (ii) 4 bytes AS number
    • 3.7.b (iii) Private AS
  • 3.7.c   Explain attributes and best‐path selection
  • 3.7.d   Implement, optimize and troubleshoot routing policies
    • 3.7.d (i) Attribute manipulation
    • 3.7.d (ii) Conditional advertisement
    • 3.7.d (iii) Outbound route filtering
    • 3.7.d (iv) Communities, extended communities
    • 3.7.d (v) Multi‐homing
  • 3.7.e   Implement and troubleshoot scalability
    • 3.7.e (i) Route‐reflector,  cluster
    • 3.7.e (ii) Confederations  
    • 3.7.e (iii) Aggregation, AS set
  • 3.7.f   Implement and troubleshoot multiproctocol BGP
    • 3.7.f (i) IPv4, IPv6, VPN address‐family
  • 3.7.g   Implement and troubleshoot AS path manipulations
    • 3.7.g (i) Local AS, allow AS in, remove private AS
    • 3.7.g (ii) Prepend
    • 3.7.g (iii) Regexp
  • 3.7.h   Implement and troubleshoot other features
    • 3.7.h (i) Multipath
    • 3.7.h (ii) BGP synchronization
    • 3.7.h (iii) Soft reconfiguration, route refresh
  • 3.7.i   Describe BGP fast convergence features
    • 3.7.i (i)   Prefix independent convergence
    • 3.7.i (ii)   Add‐path
    • 3.7.i (iii)   Next‐hop address tracking
3.8 ISIS (for IPv4 and IPv6)
  • 3.8.a   Describe basic ISIS network
    • 3.8.a (i) Single area, single topology
  • 3.8.b   Describe neighbor relationship
  • 3.8.c   Describe network types, levels and router types
    • 3.8.c (i) NSAP addressing
    • 3.8.c (ii) Point‐to‐point, broadcast
  • 3.8.d   Describe operations
  • 3.8.e   Describe optimization features
    • 3.8.e (i) Metrics, wide metric
4.0 VPN Technologies
4.1 Tunneling
  • 4.1.a   Implement and troubleshoot MPLS operations
    • 4.1.a (i) Label stack, LSR, LSP
    • 4.1.a (ii) LDP
    • 4.1.a (iii) MPLS ping, MPLS traceroute
  • 4.1.b   Implement and troubleshoot basic MPLS L3VPN
    • 4.1.b (i) L3VPN, CE, PE, P
    • 4.1.b (ii) Extranet (route leaking)
  • 4.1.c   Implement and troubleshoot encapsulation
    • 4.1.c (i) GRE
    • 4.1.c (ii) Dynamic GRE
    • 4.1.c (iii) LISP encapsulation principles supporting EIGRP OTP
  • 4.1.d   Implement and troubleshoot DMVPN (single hub)
    • 4.1.d (i) NHRP
    • 4.1.d (ii) DMVPN with IPsec using preshared key
    • 4.1.d (iii) QoS profile
    • 4.1.d (iv) Pre‐classify
  • 4.1.e   Describe IPv6 tunneling techniques
    • 4.1.e (i) 6in4, 6to4
    • 4.1.e (ii) ISATAP
    • 4.1.e (iii) 6RD
    • 4.1.e (iv) 6PE/6VPE
  • 4.1.g   Describe basic layer 2 VPN —wireline
    • 4.1.g (i) L2TPv3 general principals
    • 4.1.g (ii) ATOM general principals
  • 4.1.h   Describe basic L2VPN — LAN services
    • 4.1.h (i) MPLS‐VPLS general principals
    • 4.1.h (ii) OTV general principals
4.2 Encryption
  • 4.2.a   Implement and troubleshoot IPsec with preshared key
    • 4.2.a (i) IPv4 site to IPv4 site
    • 4.2.a (ii) IPv6 in IPv4 tunnels
    • 4.2.a (iii) Virtual tunneling Interface (VTI)
  • 4.2.b   Describe GET VPN  
5.0 Infrastructure Security
5.1 Device security
  • 5.1.a   Implement and troubleshoot IOS AAA using local database
  • 5.1.b   Implement and troubleshoot device access control  
    • 5.1.b (i) Lines (VTY, AUX, console)
    • 5.1.b (ii) SNMP
    • 5.1.b (iii) Management plane protection
    • 5.1.b (iv) Password encryption
  • 5.1.c   Implement and troubleshoot control plane policing
  • 5.1.d   Describe device security using IOS AAA with TACACS+ and RADIUS  
    • 5.1.d (i) AAA with TACACS+ and RADIUS
    • 5.1.d (ii) Local privilege authorization fallback
5.2 Network security
  • 5.2.a   Implement and troubleshoot switch security features
    • 5.2.a (i) VACL, PACL
    • 5.2.a (ii) Stormcontrol
    • 5.2.a (iii) DHCP snooping
    • 5.2.a (iv) IP source‐guard
    • 5.2.a (v) Dynamic ARP inspection
    • 5.2.a (vi) port‐security
    • 5.2.a (vii) Private VLAN
  • 5.2.b   Implement and troubleshoot router security features
    • 5.2.b (i) IPv4 access control lists (standard, extended, time‐based)
    • 5.2.b (ii) IPv6 traffic filter
    • 5.2.b (iii) Unicast reverse path forwarding
  • 5.2.c   Implement and troubleshoot IPv6 first hop security
    • 5.2.c (i) RA guard
    • 5.2.c (ii) DHCP guard
    • 5.2.c (iii) Binding table
    • 5.2.c (iv) Device tracking
    • 5.2.c (v) ND inspection/snooping
    • 5.2.c (vii) Source guard
    • 5.2.c (viii) PACL
  • 5.2.d   Describe 802.1x
    • 5.2.d (i) 802.1x, EAP, RADIUS
    • 5.2.d (ii) MAC authentication bypass
6.0 Infrastructure Services
6.1 System management
  • 6.1.a   Implement and troubleshoot device management
    • 6.1.a (i) Console and VTY
    • 6.1.a (ii) telnet, HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, SCP
    • 6.1.a (iii) (T)FTP
  • 6.1.b   Implement and troubleshoot SNMP
    • 6.1.b (i) v2c, v3
  • 6.1.c   Implement and troubleshoot logging
    • 6.1.c (i) Local logging, syslog, debug, conditional debug
    • 6.1.c (ii) Timestamp
6.2 Quality of service
  • 6.2.a   Implement and troubleshoot end‐to‐end QoS
    • 6.2.a (i) CoS and DSCP mapping
  • 6.2.b   Implement, optimize and troubleshoot QoS using MQC
    • 6.2.b (i) Classification
    • 6.2.b (ii) Network based application recognition (NBAR)
    • 6.2.b (iii) Marking using IP precedence, DSCP, CoS, ECN
    • 6.2.b (iv) Policing, shaping
    • 6.2.b (v) Congestion management (queuing)
    • 6.2.b (vi) HQoS, sub‐rate ethernet link
    • 6.2.b (vii) Congestion avoidance (WRED)
  • 6.2.c   Describe layer 2 QoS
    • 6.2.c (i) Queuing, scheduling
    • 6.2.c (ii) Classification, marking
6.3 Network services
  • 6.3.a   Implement and troubleshoot first‐hop redundancy protocols
    • 6.3.a (i) HSRP, GLBP, VRRP
    • 6.3.a (ii) Redundancy using IPv6 RS/RA
  • 6.3.b   Implement and troubleshoot network time protocol
    • 6.3.b (i) NTP master, client, version 3, version 4
    • 6.3.b (ii) NTP Authentication
  • 6.3.c   Implement and troubleshoot IPv4 and IPv6 DHCP
    • 6.3.c (i) DHCP client, IOS DHCP server, DHCP relay
    • 6.3.c (ii) DHCP options
    • 6.3.c (iii) DHCP protocol operations
    • 6.3.c (iv) SLAAC/DHCPv6 interaction
    • 6.3.c (v) Stateful, stateless DHCPv6
    • 6.3.c (vi) DHCPv6 prefix delegation
  • 6.3.d   Implement and troubleshoot IPv4 network address translation
    • 6.3.d (i) Static NAT, dynamic NAT, policy‐based NAT, PAT
    • 6.3.d (ii) NAT ALG
  • 6.3.e   Describe IPv6 network address translation
  • 6.3.e (i) NAT64
  • 6.3.e (ii) NPTv6
6.4 Network optimization
  • 6.4.a   Implement and troubleshoot IP SLA
    • 6.4.a (i) ICMP, UDP, Jitter, VoIP
  • 6.4.b   Implement and troubleshoot tracking object
    • 6.4.b (i) Tracking object, tracking list
    • 6.4.b (ii) Tracking different entities (e.g. interfaces, routes, IPSLA, and such)
  • 6.4.c   Implement and troubleshoot netflow
    • 6.4.c (i) Netflow v5, v9
    • 6.4.c (ii) Local retrieval
    • 6.4.c (iii) Export (configuration only)
  • 6.4.d   Implement and troubleshoot embedded event manager
    • 6.4.d (i) EEM policy using applet
  • 6.4.e   Identify performance routing (PfR)
    • 6.4.e (i) Basic load balancing
    • 6.4.e (ii) Voice optimization
7.0 Evolving Technologies
7.1 Cloud
  • 7.1.a   Compare and contrast Cloud deployment models  
    • 7.1.a (i) Infrastructure, platform, and software services (XaaS)  
    • 7.1.a (ii) Performance and reliability  
    • 7.1.a (iii) Security and privacy
    • 7.1.a (iv) Scalability and interoperability
  • 7.1.b   Describe Cloud implementations and operations  
    • 7.1.b (i) Automation and orchestration  
    • 7.1.b (ii) Workload mobility
    • 7.1.b (iii) Troubleshooting and management
    • 7.1.b (iv) OpenStack components
7.2 Network programmability (SDN)
  • 7.2.a   Describe functional elements of network programmability (SDN) and how they interact  
    • 7.2.a (i) Controllers
    • 7.2.a (ii) APIs
    • 7.2.a (iii) Scripting
    • 7.2.a (iv) Agents
    • 7.2.a (v) Northbound vs. Southbound protocols
  • 7.2.b   Describe aspects of virtualization and automation in network environments  
    • 7.2.b (i) DevOps methodologies, tools and workflows
    • 7.2.b (ii) Network/application function virtualization (NFV, AFV)
    • 7.2.b (iii) Service function chaining
    • 7.2.b (iv) Performance, availability, and scaling considerations
7.3 Internet of Things
  • 7.3.a   Describe architectural framework and deployment considerations for Internet of Things (IoT)  
    • 7.3.a (i) Performance, reliability and scalability
    • 7.3.a (ii) Mobility
    • 7.3.a (iii) Security and privacy
    • 7.3.a (iv) Standards and compliance
    • 7.3.a (v) Migration
    • 7.3.a (vi) Environmental impacts on the network